[이도영의 시사영어]매일 적색 육류를 먹는 것은 조기 사망율을 증가시킨다

Study Is First Large Analysis Of Link With Overall Health

연구는 전체적 건강과 연관된 최초의 대단위 분석이다

By Rob Stein
Washington Post Staff Writer
Tuesday, March 24, 2009; A01

Eating red meat increases the chances of dying prematurely, according to the first large study to examine whether regularly eating beef or pork increases mortality.

정규적으로 쇠고기나 돼지고기를 먹는 것이 사망율을 증가시키는지를 검토하기 위하여 최초로 대단위로 검토한 연구 (결과)에 의하면, 적색 육류를 먹는 것은 조기 사망율을 증가시킨다.

*red meat

1 : meat (as beef) that is red when raw  [날 것일때 적색을 띠는 육류 (쇠고기와 같이)
2 : something substantial that can satisfy a basic need or appetite red meat of passionate partisanship — William Safire>

* premature

: happening, arriving, existing, or performed before the proper, usual, or intended time ; especially : born after a gestation period of less than 37 weeks <premature babies>
[적절한, 보통의 또는 의도된 시기 이전에 일어나거나 도착하거나 존재하거나 수행된 것을 말함; 특히, 37주 이전 기간에 태어난 아기 <미숙아>]

* mortality

1: the quality or state of being mortal
2: the death of large numbers (as of people or animals)
3 archaic : death
4: the human race
5 a: the number of deaths in a given time or place
   b: the proportion of deaths to population
   c: the number lost or the rate of loss or failure

The study of more than 500,000 middle-aged and elderly Americans found that those who consumed about four ounces of red meat a day (the equivalent of about a small hamburger) were more than 30 percent more likely to die during the 10 years they were followed, mostly from heart disease and cancer. Sausage, cold cuts and other processed meats also increased the risk.

50만명 이상의 미국인 중년과 노년을 대상으로한 연구는 하루에 4온즈 (작은 헴버거의 양과 동가) 적색 육류를 먹는 사람들은 10년 동안 추적 연구하는 동안 30 퍼센트 이상이 대부분 심장질환과 암으로 죽는다는 것을 발견했다. 소시지나 얇게 썬 차거운 육류나 다른 가공된 육류 또한 위험율을 증가시켰다.


: the period of life from about 45 to about 64 [약 45세~약64세의 연령대]
— mid•dle–aged  mi-dəl-ājd adjective  [형용사로 쓰임]
— mid•dle–ag•er  -ā-jər noun


transitive verb
1: to do away with completely : destroy consumed several buildings>
2 a: to spend wastefully : squander b: use up consumed much of his time>
3 a: to eat or drink especially in great quantity <consumed several bags of pretzels>
   b: to enjoy avidly : devour consumes for fun — E. R. Lipson>
4: to engage fully : engross <consumed with curiosity>
5: to utilize as a customer <consume goods and services>

intransitive verb
1: to waste or burn away : perish
2: to utilize economic goods
[특히 대량으로 많이 먹거나 마시다, ‘소비한다’는 뜻]

* cold cuts

sliced assorted cold cooked meats (차겁게 요리된 얇게 썬 육류, 주로 헴종류를 말함)

Previous research had found a link between red meat and an increased risk of heart disease and cancer, particularly colorectal cancer, but the new study is the first large examination of the relationship between eating meat and overall risk of death, and is by far the most detailed.

"The bottom line is we found an association between red meat and processed meat and an increased risk of mortality," said Rashmi Sinha of the National Cancer Institute, who led the study published yesterday in the Archives of Internal Medicine.

Archives of Internal Medicine (내과 의학 전문지)에 어제 발간된 연구를 주도해 온 국립 암 연구소의 Rashmi Sinha씨는 말하기를 “최저선은 적색 육류와 가공된 육류는 사망율을 증가시키다는 것을 우리들은 발견했다.”

In contrast, routine consumption of fish, chicken, turkey and other poultry decreased the risk of death by a small amount.

(이와는 ) 대조적으로, 생선과 닭고기, 터키 및 다른 가금류를 일상적으로 먹은 사람들은 약간이지만 사망의 위험을 감소시켰다.

"The uniqueness of this study is its size and length of follow-up," said Barry M. Popkin, a professor of global nutrition at the University of North Carolina, who wrote an editorial accompanying the study. "This is a slam-dunk to say that, 'Yes, indeed, if people want to be healthy and live longer, consume less red and processed meat.' "

이 연구의 편집문을 쓴 University of North Carolina에 있는 지구촌 영양학 교수인 Barry M. Popkin 교수는 “본 연구의 (유일한) 특색은 연구대상이 방대하며 추적기간이 장기간이란 것이다”라고 말했다. “예, 정말로, 사람들이 건강하게 오래 살기를 원한다면, 육류와 가공된 육류를 적게 먹는 것이라고 (감히) 확실하게  말하겠다.”

* slam-dunk

1 : dunk shot
2 : sure thing slam dunk> [확실한 일]
— slam–dunk verb

There are many explanations for how red meat might be unhealthy: Cooking red meat generates cancer-causing compounds; red meat is also high in saturated fat, which has been associated with breast and colorectal cancer; and meat is high in iron, also believed to promote cancer. People who eat red meat are more likely to have high blood pressure and cholesterol, which increases the risk of heart disease. Processed meats contain substances known as nitrosamines, which have been linked to cancer.

어떻게 육류가 건강하지 않은가에 대하여 많은 설명들이 있다: 육류를 요리하는 것은 발암물질을 생성한다; 육류는 고농축된 지방을 또한 포함하는데, 유방암과 직장암과 연관되는 것이다; 그리고 육류는 철이 많이 포함되어 있으며, 이는 또한 암을 유발하는 것으로 믿고 있다. 육류를 먹는 사람들은 고혈압과 콜레스테롤 수치가 높을 가능성이 있는데, 이는 심장병의 위험성을 증가시킨다. 가공된 육류는 니트로사민즈라고 알려진 물질을 내포하고 있는데, 암과 연관되어 있다.

Although pork is often promoted as "white meat," it is believed to increase the risk of cancer because of its iron content, Sinha said.

비록 돼지 고기는 종종 “하얀색 고기”로 선전되고 있는데, 돼지 고기가 포함하고 있는 철분이 암의 위험성을 증가시키는 것으로 믿고 있다고 Sinha 교수는 말했다.

Regardless of the mechanism, the research provides new evidence that people should follow long-standing recommendations to minimize consumption of red meat, several experts said.

"The take-home message is pretty clear," said Walter Willett, a nutrition expert at the Harvard School of Public Health. "It would be better to shift from red meat to white meat such as chicken and fish, which if anything is associated with lower mortality."

The American Meat Institute, a trade group, dismissed the findings, however, saying they were based on unreliable self-reporting by the study participants.

"Meat products are part of a healthy, balanced diet, and studies show they actually provide a sense of satisfaction and fullness that can help with weight control. Proper body weight contributes to good health overall," James H. Hodges, the group's executive vice president, said in a written statement.

For the study, researchers analyzed data from 545,653 predominantly white volunteers, ages 50 to 71, participating in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study. In 1995, the subjects filled out detailed questionnaires about their diets, including meat consumption. Over the next 10 years, 47,976 men and 23,276 women died.

After accounting for other variables that might confound the findings, such as smoking and physical activity, the researchers found that those who ate the most red meat -- about a quarter-pound a day -- were more likely to die of any reason, and from heart disease and cancer in particular, than those who ate the least -- the equivalent of a couple of slices of ham a day.

Among women, those who ate the most red meat were 36 percent more likely to die for any reason, 20 percent more likely to die of cancer and 50 percent more likely to die of heart disease. Men who ate the most meat were 31 percent more likely to die for any reason, 22 percent more likely to die of cancer and 27 percent more likely to die of heart disease.

In contrast, those who consumed the most white meat were about 8 percent less likely to die during the study period than those who ate the least, the researchers found. Poultry contains more unsaturated fat, which improves cholesterol levels, and fish contains omega-3 fatty acids, which are believed to help reduce the risk of heart disease.

The risk also rose among those who consumed the most processed meat, which included any kind of sausage, cold cuts or hot dogs. Women who consumed the most processed meat (about an ounce a day) were about 25 percent more likely to die overall, about 11 percent more likely to die of cancer and about 38 percent more likely to die from heart disease, compared to those who ate the least. The men who ate the most processed meat were 16 percent more likely to die for any reason, about 12 percent more likely to die of cancer and about 9 percent more likely to die of heart disease.

Experts stressed that the findings do not mean that people need to eliminate red meat from their diet, but instead should avoid eating it every day.

"You can be very healthy being a vegetarian, but you can be very healthy being a non-vegetarian if you keep your red-meat intake low," Willett said. "If you are eating meat twice a day and can cut back to once a day there's a big benefit. If you cut back to two or three times a week there's even more benefit. If you eliminate it entirely, there's a little more benefit, but the big benefit is getting away from everyday red-meat consumption."

In addition to the health benefits, a major reduction in the eating of red meat would probably have a host of other benefits to society, Popkin said: reducing water shortages and pollution, cutting energy consumption, and tamping down greenhouse gas emissions -- all of which are associated with large-scale livestock production.

"There's a big interplay between the global increase in animal food intake and the effects on climate change," he said. "If we cut by a few ounces a day our red-meat intake, we would have big impact on emissions and environmental degradation."


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